Electronics and electrical equipment of transport
Issue № 2, 2022 year

«Electronics and
electrical equipment
of transport»

In this issue, you will learn about the study of the performance of the electromechanical systems of the motor-ruling complex of the former in the long-term operation of the inhabited underwater apparatus, improving the system for monitoring the insulation of traction engines of locomotives, and the energy criterion for detecting a tiristor shoulder of the power transducer of alternating current.

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Power supply and electrical equipment

Capacitor-Transistor Ignition Module of a Gas Internal Combustion Engine

Nefediev Alexey Ivanovich, Sharonova Veronika Gennadievna, Gusev Vladimir Georgievich

Improving the reliability of the ignition system of a gas engine depends on the quality and reliability of sparking in the engine cylinders. The article is devoted to the study of the influence of spark discharge parameters on the quality of combustion of a gas-air mixture with various types of ignition coils and various spark plugs. A block diagram of the capacitor-transistor module of the ignition system is proposed. The use of a capacitor-transistor ignition system makes it possible to obtain a spark discharge with a high duration and a high rate of voltage rise on the spark plug has been found. The results of comparative tests of transistor, capacitor and capacitor-transistor ignition systems are presented. Key words: capacitor ignition system, spark plug, ignition coil, gas-air mixture, spark discharge, gas engine

Keywords: capacitor ignition system, spark plug, ignition coil, gas-air mixture, spark discharge, gas engine.


Mikhalchuk Nikolai Lvovich, Savoskin Anatoly Nikolaevich, Chuchin Anton Aleksandrovich

One of the ways to increase the traction properties of single-phase direct current electric locomotives is to control the traction force of the engines. To achieve this purpose, it is necessary to ensure the implementation of any values of excitation currents without switching in the power circuit. A method is known for simultaneously controlling the voltage at the anchor of the traction motor and the excitation winding for diesel locomotives. An adaptation of this method for a single-phase direct current electric locomotive is proposed. To power the controlled transistor converter, a bridge rectifier connected to a separate winding of the electric locomotive transformer should be used. The results of the calculation of the electromagnetic processes of the converter operation are presented and the calculation of the transformer winding is performed. The proposed scheme provides the possibility of bogie and axial control of the traction force of an electric locomotive.

Keywords: electric locomotive, traction motor, transistor converter, controlled excitation converter, electromagnetic processes, transformer, bogie and axial traction control.

Energy criterion for detection of the break in the thyristor arm of the power converter of the AC electric locomotive

Skorik Vitaly Gennadievich, Suprun Demian Andreevich, Malysheva Olga Alexandrovna

The article provides a description of the criterion that allows you to determine the damaged thyristor arm in the rectifier-inverter converter of AC electric locomotives with a collector electric drive. As a criterion, it is proposed to evaluate the energy in the rectified current circuit for each half-cycle of the mains voltage. Analytical expressions are given that allow calculating the boundary conditions for determining the emergency mode. The results of mathematical modeling of the application of the proposed criterion in the Matlab Simulink software environment are presented.

Keywords: rectifier-inverter converter, traction mode, electric locomotive, Duhamel integral, loss of control.


Durakov Dmitry Nikolaevich, Lobyntsev Vladimir Vasilyevich, Ustinov Vasily Sergeevich, Fokin Sergey Georgievich, Polyashov Alexander Alexandrovich, Kichko Stepan Aleksandrovich, Kushtan Maximilian Igorevich, Buryakov Ilya Nikolaevich.

The world ocean occupies two-thirds of the planet's surface, but its depths remain poorly understood to this day. The main obstacle is the need for a long stay in an alien environment under the influence of high pressure. At the same time, offshore hydrocarbon deposits are being actively developed, attempts are being made to extract ferromanganese, nickel and cobalt nodules in transit zones, power and telecommunication cables and pipelines are being laid along the seabed. The need to perform a wide range of underwater technical work at depths of hundreds of meters or more led to the creation of underwater vehicles of various classes from remote-controlled to habitable. Their movement and maneuvering is carried out by means of a propeller, the developers deliberately reduce the efficiency of which in order to achieve acceptable flow parameters of the electric drive, using combined planetary gearboxes and magnetic couplings instead of a shaft seal. The authors of the publication attempted to assess the actual condition of the electric drives of the propulsion and steering complex of the inhabited underwater vehicle C-Explorer 5.8 after a long period of operation. The study of the electromechanical characteristics of electric drives and the state of permanent magnets in the hubs of propellers was carried out.

Keywords: manned underwater vehicle, magnetic coupling, torque, propeller, electromechanical drive system, propulsion and steering complex.

Filter-compensating installation for increasing bandwidth capability and reduce power losses in traction network of railways

Serebryakov Alexander, German Leonid, Dulepov Dmitry Evgenievich, Osokin Vladimir Leonidovich.

In order to increase the bandwidth capacity of electrified railways and reduce power losses in traction network, two-stage filter-compensating installations (FCI) of transverse capacitive compensation are switched on at the sectioning post. With increase of traction load, when heavy trains appear in traction network, the maximum power of FCI is turned on, and with decrease in traction load, the power of FCI decreases.

For this purpose, FCI is performed with thyristor switch (TS) for non-contact switching of two sections. In this case, the TS performs two functions, firstly, for fast section switching without overvoltage: it ensures the inclusion of two series-connected sections to reduce the generated power and the inclusion of one main section to increase the power of FCI. Secondly, to limit current and voltage surges in traction network due to the fact that the voltage on FCI increases gradually in 400-500 V by short-term phase control of thyristor switch. The patented scheme of automatic control of thyristor switch is given. The technical and economic effect consists in the fact that with the help of one filter-compensating installation with two inductive-capacitive sections LC voltage rises to required value and at the same time dangerous voltage surges in traction network are excluded when regulating the power of FCI. It is promising to upgrade all existing compensating installations at sectioning posts with their transfer to switchable filter-compensating FCI.

Keywords: filter-compensating installations, bandwidth capability, power losses, phase control, current and voltage surges, sectioning posts.

Modern technological processes, equipment, materials

New traction motor insulation systems

Ryzhova Elena Lvovna

The article discusses the relevance of the application of a new insulation system for electric traction rolling stock machines. Analyzing innovative directions of application of dielectric materials, the author notes that one of the reasons for failures of electric rolling stock components is the breakdown of insulation and inter-turn closure of the armature winding of the traction motor. The technical solutions in production, the main parameters, reliability and durability indicators, as well as the advantages of the considered types of insulation of domestic manufacturers for electric traction rolling stock machines are given. The conclusion is made about the expediency of using the above new traction engine insulation system.

Keywords: electrical insulation materials, nanoelectroisolation, traction electric motor, rolling stock, insulation breakdown, heat resistance class, glass-containing materials.


Prokhor Denis Ivanovich, Nikitin Viktor Valerievich, Evstafiev Andrey Mikhailovich

An analysis of statistical data on locomotive failures shows that a significant number of failures occur as a result of failures in the traction motor insulation system. Currently, Russian Railways regulations regulate the following types of traction motor insulation tests: insulation resistance measurement, high voltage tests, and breakdown tests. This article proposes to expand the range of insulation parameters controlled during operation by measuring the absorption coefficient, return voltage, dielectric loss tangent, and insulation capacitance. The results of monitoring additional insulation parameters of traction motors during operational tests are given, criteria for rejecting traction motors according to the state of insulation are formulated.

Keywords: electrical insulation, traction motor, locomotive.

Diagnostics and testing

Monitoring the technical condition of power transformers by the method of acoustic diagnostics

Erkabaev Aibek

The relevance of the stated topic of scientific research is due to the need to develop and consistently implement effective methods of the current state of power transformer substations in the railway system of Kazakhstan, using methods of acoustic diagnostics. The purpose of this research work is to study the prospective improvement of the control of the technical condition of power transformers used in the railway economy of Kazakhstan, provided that the method of acoustic diagnostics is used to solve all the problematic issues of such control. The basis of the methodological approach in this research work is the methods of combining the methods of system analysis today, approaches to the use of methods for monitoring the technical condition of power transformers using methods of acoustic diagnostics of the Republic of Kazakhstan, with an analytical study of the main possibilities of carrying out operations in the railway system of Kazakhstan. The results obtained in this research work indicate the presence of various options for the application of acoustic diagnostics methods for monitoring the technical condition of power transformer substations, and also confirm the need for further improvement of control methods to achieve high quality of operation of power transformer substations of railways. The results of this research work, as well as practical conclusions based on them, have significant applied and practical importance for employees of various departments and services of the railway industry of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Ensuring the uninterrupted operation of the rolling stock of the railway, as well as for developers of methods for technical control of the state of power transformers

Keywords: power transformer substations, train traction, railway rolling stock, acoustic diagnostics, railway industry of the Republic of Kazakhstan, control of the technical condition of power lines of transformers

Development of the probabilistic-statistical mathematical model and the criterion for assessing the compliance of the on-board electrical equipment of the batch of the automobiles in terms of the interference immunity parameters

Kozlovskiy Vladimir, Podgorny Aleksandr, Brachunova Ulyana, Nikolaev Pavel

The article presents the results of the development and implementation of the probabilistic-statistical mathematical model and the criteria for assessing the compliance of the on-board electrical equipment of the batch of the automobiles in terms of the electromagnetic compatibility parameters

Keywords: automobile, on-board electrical equipment, electromagnetic compatibility.

Electromagnetic compatibility

Electromagnetic processes in non-contact engines direct current with two inductors

Gridin Vladimir Mikhailovich

Electromagnetic processes have been investigated for two non-contact DC motors (BDPT), containing a three-section anchor winding (JA), three power transistors and two cylindrical inductors-a magnet. In one BDPT, nuclear weapons are ordinary, drum, and the numbers of the radial poles of the two inductors differ three-fold. In another BDPT, YAO is a toroidal one, and the numbers of the radial poles of the two inductors differ by a factor of two. Electromagnetic processes have been investigated with allowance for the distribution of the resultant magnetic induction along the circumference of the air gap and the inductance of the NW sections. The study obtained the expression for the EMF, the current in sections of nuclear weapons, electromagnetic power, the power consumption of nuclear weapons, as well as - equations and expressions, allowing to determine the optimum value of the ratio of EMF to the supply voltage and the advance angle switching. It is shown how the results should be use in the design and development of BDPT

conventional and toroidal windings, cylindrical inductors with different number of poles, electromagnetic and consumed power, optimal EMF coefficient and lead advance angle.

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