Electronics and electrical equipment of transport
Issue № 3, 2022 year

«Electronics and
electrical equipment
of transport»

In this issue, you will learn about the prospect of using a tram-train in the transport system of St. Petersburg, comparing the energy efficiency of electric vehicles, studying the noise immunity to external electromagnetic influences of a vehicle speed control channel, and much more.

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Power supply and electrical equipmen

Methods of visual and automatic temperature control of electric rolling stock equipment

Stepanov Maxim Alexandrovich, Stepanov Alexander Petrovich, Krivorotova Victoria Viktorovna

The article describes two ways to control the temperature of electric rolling stock of railways using thermal indicators (reversible and non-reversible) during movement and in parking lots. The first method of visual control of heating of electric power equipment and electric cars of an electric locomotive complements the existing methods of temperature control on electric wagons, makes information about heating of electric equipment and electric cars of an electric locomotive available to the locomotive crew when driving an electric wagon and in parking lots, and also allows you to determine, after the end of the trip, the maximum heating temperature of controlled electrical equipment and electric cars which they received during the movement of the electric locomotive. Constant monitoring of the thermal regime of the electric locomotive's power equipment and electric machines will allow the locomotive crew to promptly make optimal decisions in the current situations, and the repairmen to identify the equipment that may fail during further operation of the electric locomotive. In the continuation of the development of the described visual method, the method of automatic control of the heating of the boxes during the movement of rolling stock, as well as visual control of the temperature of the boxes (nodes) in parking lots is considered. The essence of the method of temperature control during the movement of the rolling stock is that a set of thermal indicators is attached to the covers of the box, which includes reversible and non-reversible thermal indicators. Registration of information about the color of reversible thermal detectors on the covers of the wheelset boxes of rolling stock is carried out automatically using high-speed digital cameras installed permanently in the control zone on both sides of the track opposite each other to simultaneously receive information from two boxes of one wheelset. The information from the cameras is automatically captured, stored, analyzed, transmitted and viewed by the operator at the dispatcher control post. At the stops of the rolling stock, visual information about the heating of the box is available to the service personnel

Keywords: Visual and automatic control of heating, electrical equipment, electric machines, wheelset boxes, train safety, reliability, economic benefits

Features of the device and operation of a four-phase AC AC motor with asymmetrical winding

Gridin Vladimir Mikhailovich

In the engine under consideration, the winding is asymmetrical: its second, third and fourth phases are shifted relative to the first phase by an angle equal to 90 °, 135 ° and 225 electrical degrees, respectively. The features of the device and the operation of such an engine are considered.

The expressions for phase currents and magnetic inductions in torque four-phase and three-phase motors in the form of Fourier series are compiled. Using them, expressions for the electromagnetic moment and pulsation of this moment are obtained. When analyzing these expressions, it was found that the ripple of the moment in a four-phase motor is approximately 2.4 times less than in a three-phase motor. It has also been found that a four-phase motor produces the same specific torque as a three-phase motor and is more reliable. Keywords: four-phase unbalanced and three-phase windings, electromagnetic moment, ripple of torque, specific moment.

Keywords:

Simulation of an Energy Saving Traction Induction Electric Drive With Direct Torque Control

Evstafiev Andrey Mikhailovich, Pugachev Alexander Anatolyevich

A brief survey of the existing traction motor control systems with induction motors was carried out. It has been shown that for various quality indicators in relation to energy saving algorithms, it is advisable to use direct torque control systems. The article synthesizes the calculated and functional dependencies between the main parameters of the direct torque control system and the induction motor, the implementation of which reduces power losses. Toplogy of electric drive with energy efficient control system is given. The hardware of this control system is not different from that currently used in frequency converters. The implementation of the main elements of the electric drive by means of the Simulink and SimPowerSystems libraries of the Matlab software complex is considered in detail. The results of simulation for 11 kW induction motor electric drive are given, the analysis of which showed the adequacy of the developed model and the performance of the synthesized control system, the efficiency of an electric drive with an energy-efficient control system increases up to 18% compared to the traditional version of the direct torque control system

Keywords: induction motor, direct torque control, power factor, efficiency, simulation, three-level voltage source inverter

POWER CIRCUIT OF AN ALTERNATING CURRENT ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE USING A CONTROLLED TRANSISTOR EXCITATION CONVERTER

Mikhalchuk Nikolai Lvovich, Savoskin Anatoly Nikolaevich, Chuchin Anton Aleksandrovich

One of the ways to increase the traction properties of single-phase direct current electric locomotives is to control the traction force of the engines. To achieve this purpose, it is necessary to ensure the implementation of any values of excitation currents without switching in the power circuit. A method is known for simultaneously controlling the voltage at the anchor of the traction motor and the excitation winding for diesel locomotives. An adaptation of this method for a single-phase direct current electric locomotive is proposed. To power the controlled transistor converter, a bridge rectifier connected to a separate winding of the electric locomotive transformer should be used. The results of the calculation of the electromagnetic processes of the converter operation are presented and the calculation of the transformer winding is performed. The proposed scheme provides the possibility of bogie and axial control of the traction force of an electric locomotive

Keywords: electric locomotive, traction motor, transistor converter, controlled excitation converter, electromagnetic processes, transformer, bogie and axial traction control

Analysis of method for solving problems of optimal control of train movement

Lesov Altinbek

Optimal train management has been an active research topic for many years. All over the world, important measures are being taken to use electricity efficiently due to the growing demand for energy resources. Such measures are also being taken in the railway industry. The overall objective is to operate the train in such a way as to minimize the overall energy consumption, taking into account the time and physical constraints imposed by the train and the operating conditions. The achievement of this goal is ensured by advanced technologies currently used on electric rolling stock and new computer capabilities. The lion's share of electricity consumption in railway transport is accounted for by the cost of train traction. Therefore, measures aimed at optimizing electricity consumption by electric locomotives and electric trains are relevant. Optimization is a powerful tool and a promising solution to any problems associated with the operation of railway transport. The ever-increasing complexity of engineering systems, the growing demand for accuracy and the search for optimal and reliable designs create additional difficulties that can only be solved by developing optimization models. In theory, optimization is the process of maximizing or minimizing an objective function by sequentially selecting and calculating possible results within a certain set of parameters. In the context of growing competition in the transportation market, the interest in energy efficiency among railway companies in recent years has become the subject of increased interest, both for the modernization of existing vehicles and for the acquisition of new ones

Keywords: energy efficiency, optimal train movement control, the optimal trajectory planning, energy-optimal movement trajectories, dynamic programming

Trends in the development of electronics and electrical equipment on vehicles

Application of neural networks for notification of information security events

Vasiliev Alexander

Given the dynamic pace of development and widespread use of technology in many areas of society, the importance of their information security is increasing. In particular, the use of technology in professional activities requires increased attention, due to the fact that we are talking about confidentiality, integrity and information and the protection of valuable digital data.

Many technologies and methods are being developed for information security management systems, but in this paper, attention will be paid to the topic of ensuring information security using artificial neural networks

Keywords: neural network, neurons, algorithm, information Security

Tram-train and the prospect of its application in the transport system of St. Petersburg

Makarova Elena, Vikulov Ilya, Byltseva Vasilisa Dmitrievna

Objective: Consider the classification of hybrid rolling stock, consider the interaction between two different transport infrastructures using the example of St. Petersburg GET and JSC Russian Railways, describe the analysis and design process necessary to develop a double-acting wheel profile that works like on the tracks of St. Petersburg State Unitary Enterprise Gorelektrotrans ", and on the public roads of Russian Railways. Develop an electrical circuit for operation on a hybrid rolling stock, build and describe the route of a tram-train in the city of St. Petersburg for the operation of rolling stock, both on a public railway and on tram tracks.

Methods: The method of comparative analysis and synthesis of existing profiles is applied.

Results of the study: A solution was proposed to improve the accessibility of the districts of the city of St. Petersburg and a solution that accelerates their development, in the form of the development and implementation of a tram-train. The analysis of the types of hybrid rolling stock was carried out, the analysis of the profiles of the wheels used in England and St. Petersburg was carried out. A profile of a double-acting wheel for a tram-train has been developed, an electrical circuit of the designed tram-train car has been developed. A selection of a landfill for the operation of hybrid rolling stock in the city of St. Petersburg was made.

Practical significance of the work: Creation of affordable and camphor rolling stock in a single route for operation on both tram and public railway lines in the city of St. Petersburg. Possible use of the tram-train on underused or abandoned railway and tram tracks, thereby improving the accessibility of some areas of the city and the suburban area

Keywords: Hybrid rolling stock, tram-train, wheel profile, switch point, rail profile, inverter, pantograph, transport infrastructure

Energy efficiency comparions of electric vehicles

Rahimov Elmar Agarahim

It is frequently believed that electric cars are an important means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption in global transport, especially for passenger automobile transport. The purpose of this paper is to study the relative energy usage and greenhouse gas emissions of electric vehicles compared to cars with an internal combustion engine. A comparison of energy efficiency as well as a comparison of greenhouse gas emissions were used as methods in this paper. Energy efficiency comparisons are complicated by conflicting methods used for primary sources of electricity, such as hydro, solar, or wind. This paper reviews the extent to which electric cars can effectively address global climate change and fossil fuel depletion. Moreover, the paper proves that comparing electric vehicles and vehicles with an internal combustion engine is much more complicated than generally accepted. Uncertainties arise both when using primary energy and when calculating greenhouse gas emissions. In general, it must be concluded that the benefits of using electric vehicles for energy and greenhouse gases are less than usually expected. Only when renewable energy prevails in interconnected energy systems, it will be safe to claim the superiority of electric vehicles.

Keywords: carbon emissions; electric cars; energy efficiency; energy storage; spillover effects

Electromagnetic compatibility

Investigation of noise immunity to external electromagnetic influences of the speed control channel, CAN-bus and electronic relay of turn indicators of a modern passenger car

Nikolaev Pavel Alexandrovich, Kozlovskiy Vladimir Nikolaevich, Podgorny Aleksandr Sergeevich, Kritsky Alexey Viktorovich.

The paper presents the results of experimental studies of the noise immunity to external influences of the speed control channel, CAN bus and electronic relay of the direction indicators of a modern car

Keywords: car; onboard electrical complex; electromagnetic compatibility